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Author: Jyotsna Sreenivasan

Pope Joan, by Donna Woolfolk Cross

Pope Joan, by Donna Woolfolk Cross

Did you know there may have been a female Pope in the 800’s? According to Pope Joan, which is based on historical clues, such a person could have existed. Donna Woolfolk Cross brings Pope John (or Joan) to life, from her birth to her death, and constructs plausible and engaging scenarios to explain how Joan became educated and was able to hide her gender until she reached the pinnacle of power in medieval Christianity.

Joan was born in Ingelheim, which is in present-day Germany. A map of the region would have been helpful. As she grows up, she is fascinated by both the pre-Christian Norse myths that her Saxon mother tells, as well as the Latin her older brother is learning. She persuades her brother to teach her to read and write in secret. She impresses a visiting Greek scholar, who convinces her father that she should be tutored. When her tutor leaves, he secures a place for Joan in a boarding school in Dorstadt, where she is taken in by a wealthy knight and his family. At this point Joan is still known as a female, and has to combat discrimination, teasing, and shunning based on her gender.

When Vikings sack the town of Dorstadt, Joan miraculously escapes death. She puts on her dead brother’s clothes, cuts her hair, and sets out to live as a man. She travels to the monastery that her brother was to have joined, and passes herself off as him. This was not as difficult as it sounds, given the all-encompassing clothing worn by monks, and the fact that monks rarely bathed and were not to expose their bodies to anyone. Eventually she made her way to Rome. I found a map on Google Maps that traces her journey from her birthplace to Rome.

Joan is an appealing character, although sometimes she seems too politically correct in a modern sense. The story is taut with the challenges she must face and overcome. Towards the end of the book, there are several chapters of political intrigue and historical events in which Joan is more of an observer, and these chapters were not as satisfying. In addition, some events and motivations seem shoe-horned into the plot in order to explain how her gender was unmasked. Finally, the focus returns to Joan, and the book ends on an inspiring note.

A German movie based on this book was released in 2009. For more information about the facts behind the book, as well as the author, please check out Donna Woolfolk Cross’s web site.

Interview with Lynne Kutsukake

Interview with Lynne Kutsukake

Lynne Kutsukake’s novel The Translation of Love explores the American occupation of Japan after World War II. I reviewed it last year, and as I was reading this engaging novel, I had some questions for the author. I’m so pleased that she agreed to be interviewed.

You mention that the book was inspired by letters from Japanese people to General MacArthur. How did a whole novel grow out of a book of letters?

Lynne: I was fascinated that Japanese people would write hundreds of thousands of letters to someone who until recently had been the enemy and who was now in charge of occupying their country. At one level it seemed so strange and mystifying. Yet when you think about the complex emotions many people probably felt at the end of the war (the pain of defeat but also enormous relief that the war was finally over), maybe it’s not so surprising that people sought a way to voice their feelings and demands in a way that they couldn’t have during the war. The person in charge was MacArthur, so they wrote to him. The situation completely intrigued me and really sparked my imagination. I was interested in the emotions driving people to write to MacArthur. How desperate would you be? How angry? How hopeful? And I was really keen to try my hand at writing the letters myself.

I was really drawn in by the first scene in the book, when Fumi describes looking forward to American food such as peanut butter and white bread. Did the American occupation of Japan change Japanese culture in any way?

Lynne: Without a doubt the occupation had a significant impact on people’s daily lives in the postwar years. There was a rush to learn English and a fascination with things American. The new constitution crafted by the occupation forces was very progressive and granted voting rights to Japanese women for the first time and renounced war. Peanut butter, though, never really caught on in the long run.

You tell the story through the eyes of several different people, and you manage to make each character engaging and unique. Did you base your characters on anyone you read about, or anyone you knew? How did you develop the characters?

Lynne: Thanks so much. I’m really glad you liked the characters. Although they are entirely fictional and not based on real people, my hope was that readers would become as attached to them as I did. The first character who came to me was Fumi. I knew from the start that I wanted a twelve-year-old Japanese protagonist, and Fumi sprang to life pretty quickly. Once I had Fumi in mind, I wanted her to have a friend who could help her write her letter to MacArthur, and what better person for that role than a Japanese Canadian girl who knows English. The character of Aya allowed me to bring in the backstory of the Japanese Canadian internment and deportation, just as the characters of Matt and Nancy provided a Japanese American perspective. I gave each of the characters his/her individual backstory, but I found that the real development of their characters didn’t take place until I put them in relation to each other and made them interact. Once they began interacting with each other – talking to each other and acting upon each other – their individual personalities really began to grow.

In your novel, the Japanese seem so welcoming to the Americans. Was this really the way it was? Why do you think the Japanese welcomed a country that dropped two atomic bombs on them?

Lynne: I think it was very complicated. Most Japanese did not welcome the Americans at the beginning, not at all. On the contrary there was widespread fear that the Americans would conduct a brutal, vengeful occupation. When that turned out not to be the case (the occupation was more administrative and bureaucratic in nature than it was military), there was a sense of relief. And then, because there were terrible food shortages and because the Americans were the ones who brought food aid, the relationship of dependency grew.

What was your research process like? How did you keep track of the information you found?

Lynne: I did a lot of reading and I took a lot of notes. But it wasn’t very systematic. Of course I gathered a lot of information that I didn’t need or couldn’t use or didn’t want to use, but I don’t think there is any shortcut. Sometimes you don’t know what you’re looking for, but you just trust that the interesting details that you come across will spark your creative juices.

How did you decide when to stick with historical facts and when to stray from those facts?

Lynne: I didn’t want to stray from historical facts. But at the same time I found it more interesting to focus on those hidden corners of history that have not been explored much and that therefore allowed a lot of space for imaginative roaming. So, while the story of the American occupation of Japan (as told in English) is usually seen through the eyes of white American GIs, I wanted the perspective to be through the eyes of Japanese Canadians and Japanese Americans – people who were in a kind of in-between space, people who were often ignored.

What do you hope people will come away with after reading this novel?

Lynne: That the humanity of people everywhere — regardless of country, color, race, religion — is basically the same.

Is there anything about this book that most people are not noticing or commenting on, that you wish readers and reviewers would notice?

Lynne: Not too many people comment on the fundamental irony of America bringing democracy to Japan but at the same time interning and incarcerating its own American citizens of Japanese ancestry during the war.

Thank you for the interview, Lynne! If you would like to follow Lynne, she is on Twitter: @LynneKutsukake

Property, by Valerie Martin

Property, by Valerie Martin

The title of this short novel could be read in multiple ways: “property” refers to the slave, Sarah, owned by the main character, a white woman named Manon. It could also refer to Manon herself, who is in a way the “property” of her husband. When Manon inherits her mother’s house, it is by law her husband’s property, since she “belongs” to him.

Property was first published in 2003 and won the Orange Prize for Fiction by a female author (now called the Bailey’s Women’s Prize for Fiction). It is told in first person through the voice of Manon, a middle-class Creole woman in Louisiana before the Civil War. As a reader, I had a complicated reaction to Manon. I felt sorry for her because of her marriage to a boorish, sadistic man, and I was rooting for her to find a way to escape from the marriage. But I also found her selfish and cold: she has little sympathy for Sarah, who is her husband’s mistress, and who is also searching for a way to escape – this time not just from one man, but from slavery itself.

The story takes place during a time of slave unrest and revolt. Manon is aware of the situation, but is mostly concerned with herself. The author, Valerie Martin, has created a complex character to allow the reader to experience, through Manon’s voice, what it would be like to be a white woman slave-owner. What contorted arguments would a woman like that have to believe in order to maintain the status quo? Yet as distasteful as Manon is, Martin manages to make her a sympathetic character. As a child, she lost her father. Because of her lack of wealth, she felt pressure to marry a man she didn’t love. She is not able to have children, but her husband fathers children with her own slave.

Each scene in this novella is rich with tension and layered with nuances of character.

The Blood of Flowers, by Anita Amirrezvani

The Blood of Flowers, by Anita Amirrezvani

The unnamed narrator of The Blood of Flowers is a young woman of 17th century Iran who has fallen on hard times. The book begins with the narrator and her mother huddled in old clothes in a cold, leaking shelter, speaking in whispers to avoid disturbing others sleeping nearby. But the narrator reveals that she wasn’t always in such dire straits: “Only a few months before I had worn a thick velvet robe patterned with red roses, with silk trousers underneath. I had painted my eyes with kohl, perfumed my clothes with incense, and awaited my lover, who had torn the clothes from my body in a room kept as warm as summer” (p. 5).

She blames her difficult life on a comet that passed over her village and, according to the astrologer, brought bad luck. If astrology plays a part, the narrator’s own personality is also a factor: in a culture where women are supposed to be obedient, she takes risks which sometimes work out, and sometimes don’t.

Shortly after the comet’s appearance, the narrator, then 15 years old, leaves her village for the city of Isfahan. Amirrezvani made three trips to Iran while researching and writing the book, and she is clearly enamored of Isfahan: at times the book reads like a travel guide. Yet she also brings out the glamour and excitement of that thriving city. Isfahan is a center of carpet designers and manufacturers, and the narrator persuades her uncle to teach her to design and knot world-class carpets.

The narrator also aims to marry a wealthy man and thus secure a comfortable future for herself and her mother. Unfortunately, she has no dowry. She strives to earn more from her carpets, but is thwarted by jealous relatives.

In addition to the main story line, the novel also includes traditional Iranian tales as well as two tales created by the narrator and her mother which bookend the narrative. These two tales are integral to the plot and characters, and both are poignant and insightful. The ending tale, in particular, is haunting.

Occasionally the plot of the novel is forced, but for the most part I was intrigued by this story of a woman coming of age and struggling to find her own way in a society designed to keep women hidden and dependent. After reading this book, I have a sense of the human drama and history behind every Persian rug.

What to read for African-American History Month?

What to read for African-American History Month?

February is African-American History Month. The following historical novels by and about African-American women are ones that I have read and recommend. Please feel free to leave a comment with your recommended historical novels by and about African-American women. (By the way, the photo above, taken by Thomas Askew, shows an unidentified African American woman, and is part of the image collection at the Library of Congress.)

Kindred, by Octavia Butler

In this time-travel novel, a modern-day African-American woman is repeatedly pulled back in time to rural Maryland in the early 1800’s. It turns out that she is being somehow summoned to save the life of the son of a slave-owner who, she discovers, is one of her own ancestors. Each time she is pulled back, her life is in more danger. This gripping, thought-provoking novel is not to be missed.

River, Cross My Heart, by Breena Clarke

This poignant, beautifully written novel takes place in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, DC in the 1920’s, and is based on stories the author was told by her family. It follows the life of young Johnnie Mae as she grows up in this segregated community.

I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem, by Maryse Conde

This short novel is based on the historical figure of Tituba, an Afro-Caribbean slave who was accused of witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts in 1692. Because so little is known about the real Tituba, Conde had free reign to imagine her life. Tituba tells her own story in first person in a fast-paced, sometimes mocking way: she can see the humor of her often tragic situations from beyond the curtain of death.

Beloved, by Toni Morrison

The searing Beloved won the Pulitzer Prize in 1988. It is the story of an escaped slave living in Cincinnati, Ohio in the 1850’s, who is haunted by the ghost of her daughter.

The Color Purple, by Alice Walker

Winner of the 1983 Pulitzer Prize, The Color Purple is written in the form of letters by Celie, an uneducated but hard-working black woman in rural Georgia in the early 20th century. It is hailed as a feminist classic, and was made into a movie in 1985.

Jubilee, by Margaret Walker

This is a non-racist alternative to Margaret Mitchell’s Gone with the Wind. First published in 1966, Jubilee is a fictionalized account of the author’s great-grandmother’s experiences before, during, and after the Civil War. You will fall in love with the main character, Vyry, and will not want this novel to end.

Interview with Margot Livesey

Interview with Margot Livesey

I am so excited to present this interview with Margot Livesey, author of Eva Moves the Furniture and many other novels (including her latest, Mercury.) I reviewed Eva Moves the Furniture in an earlier post, and I wanted to ask Margot how she came to write the novel, which encompasses so much: a fascinating ghost story, a tender mother-daughter novel, and the chronicle of a woman discovering who she is.

You mention on your web site that this novel took you 13 years to write. Why? What difficulties did you experience?

Margot: I had already written and published one novel, Homework, when I began Eva Moves the Furniture. The novel was based on the life of my mother who died when I was two and a half and, naively, I thought that the material was so interesting—my dead mother! ghosts! —that I didn’t really need to do anything to keep the readers’ attention. It took me years to figure out that I needed a plot and a conflict and all the things novels usually need.

How closely did you stick to your mother’s life? How much inventing did you do?

Margot: I know very little about my mother’s life so most of the novel is invented. I do regret that for artistic reasons I had to change some of the few facts that I did have. The real Eva actually spent much of the Second World War working as a nurse in London and not, as she does in my novel, in Glasgow. And I brought forward the timing of her marriage, my birth and her death.

The ghostly companions are a major part of this novel. Are they based on fact?

Margot: Yes. Among the handful of stories I have about Eva is one in which she sees “people” who are largely invisible to those around her. I found this fascinating and also the fact that my adopted father, who told me this story, described Eva’s attitude to these “people” as very matter of fact.

I think this novel could be classified as magical realism. What do you think?

Margot:I would agree although not the kind of magical realism in which many strange things happen—Eva’s world is just like ours except for one major difference.

Do you feel like writing this novel brought you closer to your mother?

Margot: Writing the novel did make me feel, for the first time, that I had a mother. But it also obliterated the historical person with the fictional character I’d created.

This feels like a deeply spiritual book, although religion and spirituality are not overtly discussed. Did you mean for it to be a spiritual book?

Margot: Yes. When I finally found my way to the version of the novel that exists between covers I realized that a major theme of the novel was about our relationships with the dead which must surely be a spiritual question for everyone over a certain age.

What was your research process like?

Margot: Research was what finally enabled me to write the novel. For many years I had thought that the novel would be purely imagined but then it finally dawned on me that Eva had grown up into the Second World War. I began to do research in books and archives which led me to the discovery of the role plastic, or reconstructive, surgery had played during the War as doctors operated on the many casualties of the Blitz and the Battle of Britain. And that research in turn led me to my plot.

Is there anything else you’d like to say about historical fiction or this particular book?

Margot: After my many years of struggling with Eva, it makes me very happy that it is out in the world and still finding readers. The novel was published on 9/11—a very dark day—and for several months no one was thinking much about fiction, but then people began to write to me saying that they had read Eva and found it comforting. Of course death changes everything, but we do still have a relationship with the dead. We keep talking to them and that relationship keeps changing, and growing.

Thank you, Margot, for these interesting thoughts about life and death, and how to turn fact into fiction. For more about Margot, please see her web site:

Half Broke Horses, by Jeannette Walls

Half Broke Horses, by Jeannette Walls

Jeannette Walls calls Half Broke Horses a “true-life novel” because although she based it on the life of her grandmother, Lily Casey Smith, she tells the story in first person (re-creating Lily’s voice) and she also imagined details to fill in the gaps of the real story.

In the author’s note at the end of the book, Walls says, “My grandmother was quite a character.” She is indeed. Her voice jumps off every page as we follow her through the adventures of her childhood, youth, and middle age in the American southwest in the first half of the twentieth century. The opening chapter tells of how Lily, 10 years old, saves herself and her siblings when they get caught in a flash flood on their family’s homestead in Texas. Lily is integral to the success of the family’s fortunes: from the age of five, she has been helping her physically disabled father to train carriage horses.

When the family moves to New Mexico, Lily is allowed to attend a Catholic boarding school, which she loves. However, after just half a year, her father fails to pay the tuition and she has to go home. She discovers that her father has used the tuition money to buy four Great Danes from Sweden. Lily is furious, but has to accept the situation. Drawing on her Catholic faith, she looks for the door that God is said to open when he closes a window, and jumps at the chance to take a test to become a teacher. She passes, and at the age of 15, rides her horse 500 miles through New Mexico into Arizona, to teach in a one-room schoolhouse. Because of World War I, teachers are in short supply.

From this point on, Lily supports herself, visiting her family only occasionally. When her first job ends with the end of the war, Lily decides to seek her fortune in Chicago. I loved tagging along on the ride of Lily’s life. Although the way is sometimes bumpy, she doesn’t let it stop her from pursuing her goals, whether learning to drive an automobile, finishing her education, taking flying lessons, or figuring out how to make ends meet during the Great Depression. As the title suggests, Lily’s life is half-way between the freedom and danger of being wild, and the safety, rules and strictures of civilization.

Lily, a born teacher, tells the stories of her life to her daughter Rosemary, in the hopes that Rosemary will learn from them. Rosemary, in turn, tells these stories to her daughter—Jeannette Walls. Although Lily died when Jeannette was only eight, her memory and stories remained in the family, and now, thanks to the sure-footed writing of Jeannette Walls, we can all benefit from spending time with the determined, energetic, resourceful, and big-hearted Lily Casey Smith.

Eva Moves the Furniture, by Margot Livesey

Eva Moves the Furniture, by Margot Livesey

I first read Eva Moves the Furniture when it came out in 2001. I enjoyed it then, and the characters stayed with me through the years. When I read it again to prepare this review, I enjoyed it even more.

The novel begins in Scotland in 1920, with the birth of Eva and with her mother’s death. As a small child living a placid rural life with her elderly father and her aunt, Eva realizes that she has two companions that only she can see: a teenaged girl and an older woman. These mysterious figures are usually helpful to her, but also embarrassing in that they make her feel different from other people. They follow her as she enters nursing school in nearby Glasgow, and as she takes her first job as a nurse. The title refers to the fact that these companions sometimes re-arranged furniture and objects in Eva’s room.

The identity of the companions is revealed gradually, as Eva learns more about life and the world beyond death. Yet their mystery is not the focus of this novel. Instead, their presence is simply a fact of life for Eva, and we come to accept them as she does. World War II begins, and in the process of helping patients who have been severely injured, she matures and her understanding deepens. The novel is an unfolding of Eva’s discovery of herself as she goes out into the world.

Eva Moves the Furniture is told in first person, from Eva’s perspective, and it is only later in the book that we realize she has been telling the story to one particular person all along. The novel is based on the life of the author’s mother.

My one minor complaint is that the novel starts with half a page about an Italian surgeon in Africa. This tidbit is tangentially related to a certain character in the book—but only if you squint and look sideways—and I am still puzzled by its prominence on the first page of this book.

Other than that, this gentle novel is full of beauty, truth, and emotion.

In the Time of the Butterflies, by Julia Alvarez

In the Time of the Butterflies, by Julia Alvarez

What gives people the courage to risk their lives for political freedom? That question spurred Julia Alvarez to write In the Time of the Butterflies based on the true story of the four Mirabal sisters, three of whom were activists with the code name “butterflies” in mid-twentieth century Dominican Republic. Alvarez, who is from the Dominican Republic, became interested in their stories because of the parallels with her own family: her father had also been involved in underground activities against the brutal Trujillo, and the three activist sisters were murdered just months after Alvarez’s family escaped to the United States.

Alvarez’s re-telling humanizes these legendary women. The story is told through the voices of all four sisters, starting in 1938, when Minerva Mirabal learns about Trujillo’s crimes from a classmate whose family members have been murdered. Although the sisters are known for their political activism, we get to know them as daughters, friends, wives, and mothers. Alvarez makes each sister unique: Patria, the eldest, cares most about her Catholic faith and her husband and children; Dedé is the organized, practical one who takes charge of the family store; Minerva struggles to become a lawyer and never backs down; and Maria Teresa is interested in young men, clothes, and following in the footsteps of Minerva.

The structure of the novel is unique and effective. It is divided into three parts, each beginning with Dedé, the only surviving sister, speaking to a Dominican-American visitor in 1994, and continuing with a memory from Dedé’s point of view. Then, each sister tells a portion of the story in her own voice. We learn what pushed each woman to become involved in the underground revolution despite the danger. Although the sisters are fighting against a brutal dictator, there are moments of humor, such as the sisters’ nicknames for prison guards, and their descriptions of pompous government officials.

Despite the tragedy, the ending is beautiful and poignant. I became so interested in the real sisters behind this novel that I looked them up. The real Dedé died in 2014. Some children of the sisters have become politicians in a democratic Dominican Republic. The day of their death, November 25, has been designated by the United Nations as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women.

Waterlily, by Ella Cara Deloria

Waterlily, by Ella Cara Deloria

Waterlily was originally written in the 1940’s but not published until 1988, after the author’s death. This novel about the life of a Dakota woman and her family in the mid-1800’s, just as European-Americans were beginning to encroach on the land where the Plains Indians lived, is based on the author’s ancestors. November is a great time to read this book, since we are celebrating Native American Heritage Month.

Ella Cara Deloria was born on the Yankton Sioux reservation and worked as a Sioux translator and ethnographic field researcher. She translated and wrote scholarly works about traditional Sioux life and customs, but in order to make this lifestyle come alive for readers, she decided to write a novel. The delightful, insightful result is Waterlily. The title refers to one of the main characters, but in reality the novel is about Waterlily’s entire family, since for a Dakota woman or man, kinship ties are akin to life itself.

The novel begins as Waterlily’s mother, Blue Bird, gives birth alone beside a stream. We soon learn that Blue Bird is in a sad situation: she and her grandmother got lost while fleeing an attack, and have been taken in by an unrelated camp. Furthermore, Blue Bird’s husband is jealous and mean.

During the first half of the novel we hardly see Waterlily; she’s busy growing up. Instead, we follow the stories of Blue Bird and other members of the camp circle. Dakota customs and rituals are explained in detail, and sometimes the novel seems like an ethnographic study. However, the traditions are an important part of the life of the characters, and it would be difficult for readers to understand the characters’ motivations, actions, and decisions without understanding their culture.

Once Waterlily reaches the age of 15, the novel follows her as she begins to notice young men, and as she decides how closely to adhere to the social rules she has been taught. Waterlily experiences great joy and tragedy, and Deloria makes sure that we, as readers, understand the significance of what is said and done.

Waterlily’s family has little contact with the European-Americans, although they do trade “American” horses, and the women covet flannel cloth as an alternative to hide clothing and blankets. Metal plates, guns, and other goods from the Europeans are also occasionally in use. Waterlily and her family have very little sense of what the Europeans will do to their way of life, although at one point a character voices fear that the buffalo will all be killed by the white men.

I loved being immersed in the culture and lives of Waterlily and her family, and I didn’t want this novel to end.